Canada - Is the second largest country in the world after Russia. However, its population
is only about one-fifth of Russia's. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200km of the border
with the United States, which means that Canada contains vast expanses of wilderness to
Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and
tundra and the Rocky Mountains. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million
people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Its
capital is Ottawa, and its largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
Various indigenous peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior
to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French claims were
made on the area, with the colony of Canada first being established by the French in 1535
during Jacques Cartier's second voyage to New France. As a consequence of various conflicts,
Great Britain gained and lost territories within British North America until it was left, in the
late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today.